PINILLA DEL VALLE
The prehistoric sites of the clearing of the fig tree in the high Valley of the Lozoya River are a set of archaeological sites where remains of hominids of the species have been found, Homo neanderthalensis. They are thus among the small group of places containing remains paleoantropologicos of the species in Spain and Europe.
The project promoted by the Regional Archaeological Museum of the community of Madrid and led by paleontologist Juan Luis Arsuga (Universidad Complutense de Madrid-Instituto de Salud Carlos III), by archeologist Enrique Baquedano (Museo Regional archaeological of the Comunidad de Madrid) and by the geologist Alfredo Pérez-González (National Center for research in human evolution) It aims to reconstruct the past from the records found. In addition, These sites contain some of the most complete fossils of vertebrates of the upper Pleistocene associations of the Iberian Peninsula, together with the paleobotanical data and geomorphological, It is allowing to also reconstruct the evolution of the landscape and the climate of the past in this region.
From Madrid, take the A-1 exit number 69 (Lozoya-Rascafría). M-604 address Navacerrada pass Lozoya and the few kilometers is the turn-off to Pinilla del Valle.
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Sieteiglesias Necropolis is located around the Church of St. Peter the Apostle and on a large Rocky area of granite.
The work carried out since the year 2001 until now they speak of a chronology covering all the high middle ages, and may correspond to the reforestation that took place in this area between the 9th and 11th centuries.
Two basic types of tombs are distinguished in the whole of the Necropolis: anthropomorphic tombs excavated in the rock and CIST tombs.
The first respond to a type of burial in which the pit was directly carved into the rock, they tended to be oval and spindle-shaped forms (bathtub), and sometimes anthropomorphic form (playing the silhouette of the dead) some of them even with the form of recess for head and shoulders.
The second type of tombs, CIST calls, It consisted in the formation of a box from slabs of stone nailed vertically around the pit, with another slab larger than closing the Tomb. They are a type of tombs which usually tend to form groups (usually family groups), next to a church. In relation to these groups noted the so-called traditionally for neighbors the tomb of the Kings.
Although the Necropolis is situated close to the Church of San Pedro Apostle does not seem that there is relationship between the two since the Church was built in the 17TH century, at a time when there was the Necropolis.
Carretera A-1, Coming km. 66.
PRADENA DEL RINCON
The Church of Santo Domingo de Silos conforms to the model of rural Romanesque architecture and is protected as well of Cultural interest. It's a rustic church with a single nave and an apse of the 13th century, subsequently expanded and has the peculiarity of being flanked by two porticoed courtyards. One of them, the North Atrium, late mudejar style, keeps an area of burials. In 2011 the Church was restored fully.
During archaeological excavations carried out recently, the layout of the original apse is document, whose silhouette has been highlighted on the pavement and numerous archaeological remains brought to light, which include: a necropolis (12th-15th), bringing together 96 tombs excavated in the rock, the majority of anthropomorphic type; a niche with three Gothic sculptures of polychromed wood and traces of wall paintings in the interior of the nave of the Church. Subsequently, appeared beneath the remains of a furnace manufacturing of campaigns, It retains the original stone entrance, the different parts of the oven and various molds. It is one of the few complete campaigns ovens that are found in Spain and dates back to the s. XVI.
Guided Church schedules:
Thursday: 10:00h. (Large groups)
Friday: 10:00h. (Large groups) and 16:00h. (Small group)
Saturday: 10:00h, 13:00h and 16:00h (Small group)
Sunday: 10h (Small group) Contact tourist guide: 679 213 064
PATONES DE ABAJO
It is the largest cavity and most important paleontological site of the region. Located on the Hill of the olive a 850 MTS of altitude, It has an area of 8. 190mts developed in three different stratigraphic levels. Its karstic character is barely recognizable from the outside.
In the interior there are kettles, meanders, stalactites and stalagmites and other forms which give evidence of the hydrogeological activity. The first description of the cave is due to the dictionary of Miñano in 1828. In 1864 Casiano de el Prado offers a representation of the cave in 1931 It will be perfected by Maura and Pérez de Barradas. Have been found 2 complete skeletons of mountain goat that had to be hunted down and abandoned by human groups from the Aurignacian period. It is one of the ten Spanish sites with remains of cave bears, being decisive its contribution to explain its distribution in Europe. In autumn and winter the bears used the cave to Hibernate. During the rest of the year the cave was occupied by hunter-gatherer tribes; It bears witness to the presence of a home and found a lithic tool.
In 1916 Henri Breuil discovers the existence of engravings and Neolithic remains inside. In 1941 Maura warns a fish, next to the deer and other fish appear. On a smooth rock nails see figures of mountain goats, a group of anthropomorphic and a mammoth. These engravings are attributed to the Aurignacian period Paleolithic human groups. Prints will be traced by the Marquis of Loriana, and Benitez Mellado and will serve for the 2 March of 1944 is declared an artistic historic monument. In 1991 Lucas Pellicer directs the completion of the inventory of art of the community of Madrid. The cave has undergone countless visits uncontrolled and destructive that has made him a great harm from the archaeological point of view, geological, biological and paleontological. For this reason several years it remains closed.
It can be reached by the A-1, The Northern motorway, (Coming) take the exit at km 50 in the direction of Torrelaguna for the national 320. Cross once this town follows to Patones de Abajo by the M-102.
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Archaeological evidence in the Dehesa de la Oliva, located at the confluence of the Lozoya and Jarama rivers, realize a long occupation throughout history, as the sites of different periods are located (from the Palaeolithic to the middle ages). It has been inhabited or visited recurrent mode by human societies groups and diverse cultures: in the cave of the Reguerillo are, on the one hand, the first artistic manifestations in the Madrid territory, work of the upper Palaeolithic hunters; on the other hand have appeared archaeological material left by the agricultural companies of prehistory.
The main site is a carpetano-romana city that occupies an area close to the 30 hectares. The different excavation campaigns in the past decade have allowed set its development between the beginning of the II century BC. and the Visigoth period. Some of the excavated and conserved structures have been object of an intervention of restoration and enhancement in the year 2006, in order to make the settlement can be visited.
It houses a walled town, with rectangular buildings, forming streets and blocks forming a well-developed urban. It also highlights the existence of a pool, public buildings and abundant ovens and homes.
In sum, It's a site of exceptional significance to illustrate ways of life in Hispania at the time of the Roman conquest and its consequences.
Close by, There are other landmarks of interest such as the ruins of the chapel of our Lady of the olive, the pontoon of the olive dam, various historic canals of the Canal de Isabel II, etc.
exit 50 the a-1. The N-320 is taken towards Torrelaguna and, Once there, the M-102 towards Patones de Abajo. Passing this municipality, to 4.5 km, turn left along the road M-134 El Atazar. Bordering the site opens, on the right hand, a forest road that leads to the visiting public area.
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