The dehesas or dehesa buoy are forests transformed by the hand of man and form a unique ecosystem in the world for many reasons, but above all for assuming a sustainable model of exploitation and conservation. Both in the Iberian Peninsula in general, as in the Sierra Norte of Madrid in particular, they are a fundamental part of the landscape, of history and rural economy. Its origin is linked in part to the advance of the Reconquista, especially since the thirteenth century, when local farmers began to fence their farms to close the way to the herds of transhumance. In fact, the term pasture comes from confesses, which in Latin means defense or bounded ground for pasture use.
In the Sierra Norte de Madrid, most of the meadows are made of oak and oak (Pyrenean oak), but there are also some ash meadows such as Those of El Berrueco or Villavieja, In these ash meadows, a very particular pruning is carried out, the trasmocho, which consists of the complete removal of all components of the ash cup, leaving only the trunk and its extension shaft clean of all formation and green element.
In the Sierra Norte of Madrid the fundamental uses are those of livestock and hunting exploitation, although forest uses are also made, like the firewood lucks, that provide firewood to neighbors to heat their homes while cleaning and regenerating the meadows. Other use, already extinguished by the arrival of new sources of energy, was the carbonation, which took place in the area from the sixteenth century to the middle of the last century.
The fauna in the mountain meadows is rich and varied due to its condition as an ecosystem in which the characteristics of cleared areas and forested areas are combined. As for the birds we find very diverse populations such as forest birds such as the picapinos beaks, Climbers, agateadores or zarceros. Among the usual raptors are buzzards, black milanos, European roadways and snakes.
The meadows also make up beautiful landscapes, many of them crossed by paths that give us the opportunity to travel them hiking or cycling through marked roads and routes to get to know them up close. In all pastures we must respect certain fundamental rules, since as we have mentioned above they are places of livestock exploitation, hunting and forestry, so we must close the brambles or cancels, respect the tranquility of the livestock and be respectful to the local population.
Other resources of nature